safe micro-organisms for education: bacteria, fungi, algae, viruses


Heather T. Ewald, James H. Brashears III,
Christine N. Huynh, Eric B. Freeman, Michael V. Corvini,
Meghan F. Davis, Elizabeth M. Femenia, Billie R. Hart
and Carl W. Vermeulen

Department of Biology, The College of William & Mary,
P.O. Box 8795; Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
804-221-2230; -6483 (fax)

indentThis work was presented for review at the May 1997 general meeting of the American Society for Microbiology held in Miami FL. The authors have since been notified that this work will, in essence, be adopted as a replacement for Biosafety Level One of the National Institutes of Health (USA), and as a partial fulfillment of the NIH Director's wish to provide a list of organisms that pose no threat to health or the environment (NIH Guidelines - Federal Register 05 July 1994.) This replacement is scheduled to be made in late 1999.


indentThe spirit of this work is to advance safe scientific study of microbiology at all levels of education and research experience. Presently, most school districts and many colleges and universities have neither the time, the appropriations, nor the personnel to devote to mandated review of all project proposals. Thus, to facilitate the safe use of micro-organisms as tools for the study of biological principles, we offer the following lists of micro-organisms as safe for general educational use provided the stipulations of each list are observed. A number of recognized leaders in the field of infectious diseases have helped us in this compilation (see Acknowledgements). This document should thus grant assurance to non-microbiologically oriented lay counselors and mentors that all of the included micro-organisms are safe. Regarding immunocompromised individuals, see Appendix A. The lists are ordered according to maturity levels because many organisms require techniques that would frustrate younger scientists.

indentIt should also be noted that the following lists are by no means complete. A suggested mechanism for declaring additional microbes as safe may be to gain approval from the head of infectious diseases at the nearest Veterans Administration Hospital.


indentGRADE SCHOOL LEVEL and above. List#1a. These micro-organisms are major components of various recognized human foods. Food products are noted parenthetically. These are appropriate for experimenters of all ages. See also CLASSROOM EXPERIMENTS. (Note: if the genus name only is used, then all species within that genus are deemed safe. Also an abbreviated genus name applies back to the immediately previous unabbreviated name.)

BACTERIA: Acetobacter aceti (vinegar), Bacillus cereus (cocoa, tofu), Bac. licheniformis (cocoa), Bac. megaterium (cocoa), Bac. pumilus (cocoa), Bac. subtilis (cocoa, rice natto), Erwinia dissolvens (coffee), Lactobacillus acidophilus (acidophilus milk; yogurt), Lact. bulgaricus (yogurt), Lact. casei (many cheeses), Lact. delbrückii (pickles, soy sauce), Lact. helveticus (many cheeses), Lact. lactis (most cheeses), Leuconostoc (many cheeses), Leucon. mesenteroides (pickles; sauerkraut), Pediococcus (sauerkraut, ensilages, pickles), Propionibacterium acidipropionici (Emmenthaler cheese), Prop. freundenreichii (Swiss cheese), Prop. jensenii (buttermilk), Prop. shermanii (Emmental and Swiss cheeses), Prop. technicum (Edam cheese), Prop. thoenii (Emmenthaler cheese), Streptococcus cremoris (many cheeses), Strep. diacetilactis (sour cream, and butter products), Strep. faecalis (pickles), Strep. lactis (many cheeses, sour milk), Strep. thermophilus (yogurt and many cheeses).

FUNGI: Penicillium camemberti (cheese), Pen. roqueforti (cheese), Rhodotorula rubrum (Prisoner-of-War bread [WW2] (degrades cellulose)), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baking, alcoholic fermentation), Sacc. uvarum (cider)

indentThese higher (eukaryotic) micro-organisms are common environmental constituents. These micro-organisms are appropriate for experimenters of all ages.

GREEN ALGAE: In essence all photosynthetic forms EXCEPT Prototheca [rare skin ulcers]). Permitted types include: Ankistrodesmus, Bangia, Batrachospermum, Bulbochaete, Callithamnion, Careria, Caulerpa, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Cladophora, Closterium, Coccolithophora, Corallina, Cosmarium, Derbesia, Desmids, Dunaliella, Dictyota, Ectocarpus, Egregia, Enteromorpha, Eremosphaera, Eudorina, Fritschiella, Fucus, Gigartina, Gonium, Gracilaria, Hydrodictyon, Iridea, Laminaria, Macrocystis, Mesotaenium, Micrasterias, Microspora, Mougeotia, Nereocystis, Netrium, Nitella, Ochromonas, Oedogonium, Pandorina, Pediastrum, Polysiphonia, Porphyra, Porphyridium, Protococcus, Scenedesmus, Selanastrum, Spirogyra, Staurastrum, Stigeoclonium, Synura, Tribonema, Ulothrix, Ulva, Vaucheria, Volvox, Zygnema

PROTOZOANS: Achnanthes, Actinosphaerium, Amoeba proteus, Amoeba chaos (Pelemyxa), Amphidinium, Arcella, Astasia, Difflugia, Blepharisma, Bursaria truncatella, Chilomonas, Colpidium, Crithidia fasciulata, Cyclotella, Didinium, Euglena , Euplotes, Gregarines, Herpetomonas muscarum, Leishmania tarentalae, Leptomonas pessoai, Navicula, Paramecium , Peranema, Peridinium, Phacus, Prorocentrum, Pyrsonympha, Spirostomum, Stentor, Synedra, Tetrahymena, Thalassiosira, Trachelomonas, Tritrichomonas augusta, Trypanosoma lewisi, Trypanosoma ranarum, Trichonympha, and Vorticella.

LICHENS: All forms are safe.

FUNGI: Basidiomycetes, Dactylaris (snares nematodes), Deuteromycetes, Taxomyces andreanae (taxol producer), Zygomycetes (Mucor)

SLIME MOLDS: All types, including Dictyostelium and Physarum, are safe.

indent JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL and above. List#1b.

VIRUSES: Coliphages except T1, all other normal bacteriophages except those that confer pathogenicity to Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or to otherwise nonpathogenic bacteria.

ARCHAEBACTERIA: all free-living species, such as Halobacterium salinarium, Halococcus agglomeratus, Methanomonas methylovora

CYANOBACTERIA (blue-green "algae"): Anabaena, Anacystis, Cyanophora, Cylindrospermum, Fischerella, Glaucocystis, Gloeocapsa, Gloeotrichia, Lyngbya, Merismopedia, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Scytonema, Spirulina, and Tolypothrix.

BACTERIA and associated natural plasmids and lysogenized natural phages (except as noted in Viruses, above): Aerococcus, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Alcaligenes eutrophus (degrades 2,4D), Alcal. faecalis, Alcal. viscolactis, Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, Ali. acidoterrestris, Ali. cycloheptanicus, Aquaspirillum itersonii, Aquaspirillum polymorphum, Aquaspirillum serpens, Aquaspirillum sinuosum, Arthobacter globiformis, Azotobacter chrooccum, Az. vinelandii, Bacillus apiarius (bee symbiont), Bac. azotofixans (N-cycle), Bac. brevis, Bac. circulans (rumen), Bac. coagulans, Bac. laterosporus (rumen), Bac. macerans (rumen), Bac. marinus, Bac. pasteurii, Bac. polymyxa (N-cycle), Bac. pulvifaciens (insect symbiont), Bac. schlegelii, Bac. sphaericus (mosquito control), Bac. stearothermophilus, Bac. thiaminolyticus (insect symbiont), Bac. thuringiensis, Bac. tusciae, Beggiatoa (S-cycle), Brevibacterium linens, Butyrivibrio (rumen), Caulobacter, Cellumonas, Corynebacterium pseudo-diphtheriticum, C. xerosis, Epulopiscium spp., Escherichia coli (only classic strains of K-12, 1776, B and C, and with their indiginous plasmids and phages), Kurtha zopfi, Lucibacterium spp., Metabacterium polyspora, Micrococcus luteus, Micro. roseus, Neisseria flava, Neis. sicca, Photobacterium, Pseudomonas fragi, Rhizobium, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Ruminococcus (rumen), Sarcina aurantiaca, Sarc. flava, Sarc. lutea, Selenomonas (rumen), Serratia liquefaciens, Spirillum serpens, Spir. volutans, Sporosarcina ureae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staph. saprophyticus, M. mutans, M. salivarius, M. stereothermophilus, Streptomyces albus, Strep. antibioticus, Strep. venezuelae, Succinomonas (rumen), Sulfolobus (S-cycle), Thermoplasma, Thiobacillus thioparus, Vibrio anguillarum, Vib. fischeri, and Zymomonas


indentInclusion of species in this Category is based upon their being either of current research interest in major laboratories, or increased difficulty in cultivation. They may upon occasion may cause disease in compromised humans (see Appendix A) or other life-forms. It is recommended that safe use of these micro-organisms requires that the experimenter be enrolled in grade 9 and above and has demonstrated appropriate training in aseptic technique, decontamination and disposal, so as not to contaminate the environment outside of the lab. Also suggested is that handling be under the direct supervision of a trained microbiologist. Use by unusually bright researchers below grade 9 may be given by local review boards if the experimenter demonstrates the skills necessary to responsibly handle these organisms.

indentList#2A These prokaryotic micro-organisms can cause disease in compromised humans, and/or may be of slight pathogenicity to plants or animals. Decontamination of all disposed cultures is advised in order to minimize risk to the environment.

BACTERIA and associated natural plasmids and lysogenized natural phages (except as noted in Viruses, above): Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas punctata, Aero. salmonicida, Agrobacterium, Branhamella catarrhalis, Chromobacteria, Enterobacter, E. coli (non-pathogenic strains only - see Appendix B), Flavobacterium (except Flav. breve and Flav. meningosepticum), Hafnia, Streptococcus durans, Strep. faecalis, Strep. faecium, Strep. sanguis, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptomyces griseus, and Xanthomonas campestris.

FUNGI: Achlya , Alloyces , Antracobia , Armillariella mellea, Arthrobotrys conoides, Arth. oligospora, Clavicorona pyxidata, Corprinus lagopus, Mucor heimalis, Mucor rouxii, Neurospora crassa, Penicillum , Phlyctochytrium , Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Pilobolus crystallinus, Rhyzopus, Saccharomycoides ludwigii, Saprolegnia, Schizophyllum commune, Schizosaccharomyces octosporus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Sordaria fimicola, Thermomyces lanuginosus, and Trichoderma viride.

indentList 2B These bacteria are put with this age group primarily because they are difficult to cultivate by younger workers. The parenthetical letters indicate the chemical elements in which the microbe is involved in various mineral cycles. Aquaspirillum (H), Azotobacter (N), Azospirillum (N), Gallionella (Fe), Leptothrix (Fe), Methanococcaceae (H), Nitrobacter (N), Nitrosomonas (N), Thermothrix (S), Thiobacillus (S), and Desulfovibrio (S).

indentList 2C. Non-pathogenic forms of noted pathogenic bacteria. Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 6569), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442), Salmonella choleraesuis var. choleraesuis (ATCC 10708), Sal. choleraesuis var. typhi (ATCC 6539), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538).


Category Three

indentThis category consists of strains useful in undergraduate University and College studies. The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, GA can make suggestions as to which non-pathogenic strains should be used. Some exotoxin producers and opportunistic pathogens are included, and adherence to appropriate handling procedures for each type according to Appendices B and C of the NIH Guidelines (Federal Register 05 July 1994) is recommended.

indentList 3a. Bacteria. Alcaligenes (Hydrogen cycle, and 2,4D degradation), Clostridium, E. coli (see Appendix B; students should not use those highly pathogenic types possessing the serotype O150 or O157, which may only be used in a professional laboratory which normally studies these), Klebsiella, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus.

All Bacillus spp. are permitted EXCEPT for the following four which are NEVER exempt from review: Bacillus alvei (bee pathogen), Bac. anthracis (anthrax in mammals), Bac. popilliae (bee pathogen), and Bac. larvae (bee pathogen).

indentList 3b. Fungi (Use hood or other air purification method to obviate problems when working with sporulated fungi. While normal people have little sensitivity to fungal spores at usual environmental levels, adverse allergic and bronchiopulmonary reactions can be triggered if lab cultivation produces very high levels of spores.) Exempt from review are Aspergillus (except fumag. and flavus), Asperg. oryzae (soy sauce), and Rhizopus stolonifor (soy bean tempeh).

indentList 3c. Miscellaneous

indentEnvironmental Micro-organisms that are isolated from normal places such as the ocean, soils, swamps, food stuffs are exempt to university students and higher who have had a minimum of 50 hours of lab training covering aseptic techniques, and the functioning of sewage treatment facilities. Work must be done under the direct supervision of a trained microbiologist.

indentMicrobes derived from normal human, primate and canine sources are recommended to be treated as members of Class 3 until identification places them in lower classes. Exemption is granted for all cases of isolates from human sources when the donor is the sole handler of the material up until it is properly decontaminated and discarded.



indentWe wish to thank Thomas Shih of the NIH Office of Recombinant DNA Activities for initial guidance, and to the following, alphabetically, for assisting in the microbial content of this document: Alan S. Cross, M.D. (formerly Colonel, USA, and Head of Infectious Diseases at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; now at the Univ. of Maryland Cancer Institute), Larry Hale, Ph.D. (Head of Enteric Diseases, WRAIR), Charles Hoge, MD (Captain USA, Enteric Diseases, WRAIR), John Madden, M.D. (Duke Univ. Medical Center), John B. Robbins (NIH [NIAID], Antibacterial Vaccine Development), Richard Warren, Ph.D. (formerly at WRAIR, and the Department of Defense's representative to the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the NIH Director; now at SmithKline Beecham), Frank Witebsky (NIH, Head of Clinical Mycology), S. R. Zaki (Head of Infectious Diseases at the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). We also wish to thank Ronald Giess (Prof. of Science Education at the College of William & Mary) for help in the pedigogical content.

Appendix A

Micro-organisms for the Immuno-compromised

indentIt is very difficult to draw the line with regard to absolute and universal safe micro-organisms. Perhaps a good rule of thumb would be to consider whether or not the person in question would deem it safe to work with non-sterile garden soil. If they would feel safe doing so, then all of Categories One and Two should be considered safe.

indentHowever there is the special case of persons with weakened immune systems. Immunocompromised persons should refrain from contact with most micro-organisms and their handlers. Immunocompromised persons include those who are undergoing antibiotic therapy, or who have undeveloped immune systems (i.e. newborns), or who are taking immunosuppressive drugs, such as during tissue or organ implantation.

indentNevertheless, there are large numbers of different microbes that remain non-infectious for even the most immunologically compromised persons. Microbes that cannot survive and grow above 33°C simply cannot successfully infect most warm-blooded animals (among the exceptions are the sloth, platypus, naked mole rat, and hibernating mammals). Similarly, microbes that cannot grow below 45°C should not be able to infect any warmblooded animal even in its most feverish state (normal body temperature of small birds is 43°C). Further, it is reported that all microbes isolated from tomatoes have so far been found to be innocuous to even the most advanced AIDS patients. Thus there are large numbers of microbes usable by persons who either are immuno-compromised or come into frequent contact with those who are.

Appendix B


indentTens of thousands of E. coli strains have been identified, the vast majority of which are common necessary intestinal inhabitants. Fewer than 1% of the known strains are pathogenic and produce toxins. Clinical laboratories often test for toxigenic strains. Those which are not toxigenic are categorized as Category Two. One benign strain, O75:K100:H5, has even been fed in bulk to humans with no adverse effects, and persisted in their colons for about three weeks.* A few reference laboratories in the world have looked at E. coli in a different way. These labs are interested in the surfaces of the bacteria. This applies to vaccine production and to how the bacteria resist being killed by normal, non-specific immune functions in our bodies. The various surfaces are categorized as serotypes which are preceeded by the letters O (an underlayer of anionic lipopolysaccharide), K (exterior capsule of acidic polysaccharide), and H (flagella). Experiments using O150 and O157 ("Jack-in-the-Box") are never exempt from review, since they produce the same toxins as do the dysentery bacteria Shigella. Those studies using the other strains of E. coli which are pathogenic are not exempt from review for children below ninth grade. High school students may use these if they work directly under the supervision of a trained microbiologist. Decontamination of cultures and equipment after use is strongly advised. See Appendix C for suggested methods of decontamination.

_____ * Schneerson, R., and J. B. Robbins. 1975. "Induction of serum Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular antibodies in adult volunteers fed cross-reacting Escherichia coli O75:K100:H5. New England Journal of Medicine 292: 1093-1096.

Appendix C


indentHere are several suggested inexpensive and highly effective methods for decontaminating cultures, equipment, hands and the work area. Decontamination is advised for organisms in Categories 2 and 3:

indent1. Used cultures and some equipment. Autoclaving at 1 atm for 15 minutes is effective. Note: a kitchen pressure cooker is a manual autoclave. Heat-resistant plastic bags are easy to use in autoclaves for decontamination of used plastic petri plates. These bags can be purchased at many supermarkets.

indent2. Hands, equipment and counter tops. Most handsoaps are ineffective in killing bacteria. Alcohol washes used on hands, equipment and counter tops pose a fire/explosion hazard in microbiology labs where open flames are used to sterilize wire transfer loops. Household bleach diluted 30-fold with water is highly effective and very inexpensive. None of the above organisms can survive a few seconds of this strong oxidizer. This is safe for hands, although a short rinse with tap water shortly after disinfection with the bleach is recommended.

Amending these lists of exempt micro-organisms

indentThe ultimate approval for additions to these lists comes from the NIH Director. There are thousands of different species of microörganisms and viruses which would qualify for inclusion in these lists. These lists are thus far from comprehensive or complete. Because many additional species are expected to be nominated for inclusion, an intermediate method for expediting approval must be devised. With millions of grade and high school scientists scattered across this country, and thousands of others of college age and above, the influx of applications for exemption to one office would be overwhelming and time delays too long to be tolerable for the advancement of science. Also because the decision as to whether the organism is safe to health or the environment would usually not be difficult, anything more complex that an expedited preliminary approval route would be an exercise in the paper-shuffle. We would like to suggest that candidate safe microbes be initially presented in a brief postcard-type scan-tron form to be countersigned by two federal microbiologists. These persons might be infectious disease workers at a local Veterans Administration Hospital, or a U.S. Public Health Service microbiologist. There are many other possible federal experts in microbiology who are scattered widely across the nation. The card would be sent to the NIH Director for consideration of inclusion into the above lists. If bacteriologically oriented, the card then could be sent to the editors of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology for proper notation to be printed in the next edition. In any event, once that card has been signed by two federal microbiologists, then that particular researcher would have exemption rights until the NIH Director reached a final decision. (A duplicate card signed by the reviewers would be retained by the researcher.


Alphabetical Listing of Microbes
that are safe for health and the environment

This list is by no means complete. More are being added yearly.

I have a suggested ADDITION to make.
Take me back to the HOME PAGE
Take me back to the MICRO-ORGANISMS FOR EDUCATION page.

VIRUSES: Coliphages except T1, all other normal bacteriophages except those that confer pathogenicity to Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or to otherwise nonpathogenic bacteria.


ARCHAEBACTERIA: all free-living species, such as Halobacterium salinarium, Halococcus agglomeratus, Methanomonas methylovora


CYANOBACTERIA (blue-green "algae"):
AnabaenaGlaucocystis Nostoc
Anacystis Gloeocapsa Oscillatoria
Cyanophora Gloeotrichia Scytonema
Cylindrospermum Lyngbya Spirulina
Fischerella Merismopedia Tolypothrix

BACTERIA and associated natural plasmids and lysogenized natural phages (except as noted in Viruses, above):
Acetobacter aceti (vinegar)Azospirillum (N)
Aquaspirillum (H)Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius
Acinetobacter calcoaceticusAli. acidoterrestris
AerococcusAli. cycloheptanicus
Aeromonas punctataAqua. itersonii
Aero. salmonicidaAqua. polymorphum
Agrobacterium radiobacterAqua. sinuosum
Azotobacter (N) Arthobacter globiformis
Alcaligenes (H)9

blank Bacillus spp. [all are safe EXCEPT for the following four, which are NEVER exempt from review: Bacillus alvei (bee pathogen) Bac. anthracis (anthrax in mammals) Bac. popilliae (bee pathogen) and Bac. larvae (bee pathogen)].

Here are just a few safe Bacilli of interest:

Bacillus apiarius (bee symbiont)Bac. pasteurii
Bac. azotofixans (N-cycle)Bac. polymyxa (N)
Bac. brevisBac. pulvifaciens (insect symbiont)
Bacillus cereus (cocoa, tofu)Bac. pumilus (cocoa)
Bac. circulans (rumen)Bac. schlegelii
Bac. coagulansBac. sphaericus (mosquito control)
Bac. laterosporus (rumen)Bac. stearothermophilus
Bac. licheniformis (cocoa)Bac. subtilis (cocoa)
Bac. macerans (rumen)Bac. thiaminolyticus (insect symbiont)
Bac. marinusBac. thuringiensis
Bac. megaterium (cocoa)Bac. tusciae
Beggiatoa (S-cycle)Flavobacterium
Branhamella catarrhalis(except Flav. breve and
Brevibacterium linensFlav. meningosepticum)
Butyrivibrio (rumen)Gallionella (Fe)
CellumonasKlebsiella pneumoniae
Chromobacteria(only non-patho. ATCC 4352)
CitrobacterKurtha zopfi
ClostridiumLactobacillus acidophilus
Corynebacterium pseudo-(acidophilus milk)
diphtheriticumLact. bulgaricus (yogurt)
Coryne. xerosisLact. casei (many cheeses)
Desulfovibrio (S)Lact. delbrückii (pickles)
EdwardsiellaLact. helveticus (many cheeses)
EnterobacterLact. lactis (most cheeses)
Enterococcus faeciumLeptothrix (Fe)
(only non-pathogenic ATCC 6569)Leuconostoc (many cheeses)
ErwiniaMetabacterium polyspora
Escherichia coliMethanococcaceae (H)
(non-pathogenic strains only)9
Micrococcus luteusPseudomonas
Micro. roseusPs. aeruginosa
Mycobacterium phlei(only non-path.ATCC 15442)
Mycobact. smegmatisPs. fragi
Neisseria flavaRhizobium
Neis. siccaRhodococcus rhodochrous
Nitrobacter (N)Rhodospirillum rubrum
Nitrosomonas (N)Ruminococcus (rumen)
Pediococcus (sauerkraut ensilages)Salmonella choleraesuis var
Plesiomonas(only non-pathogenic ATCC 10708)
Propionibacterium acidipropioniciSal. choleraesuis var. typhi
(Emmenthaler cheese)(only non-pathogenic ATCC 6539)
Prop. freundenreichii (Swiss cheese) Sarcina aurantiaca
Prop. jensenii (buttermilk)Sarc. flava
Prop. shermanii (Emmental/Swiss cheeses)Sarc. lutea
Prop. technicum (Edam cheese)Selenomonas (rumen)
Prop. thoenii (Emmenthaler cheese)Serratia liquefaciens
ProteusSer. marcescens

Spirillum serpensStreptomyces albus
Spir. volutansStrep. antibioticus
Sporosarcina ureaeStrep. griseus
Staphylococcus aureusStrep. venezuelae
(only non-pathogenic ATCC 6538)Succinomonas (rumen)
Staph. epidermidisSulfolobus (S-cycle)
Staph. saprophyticusThermoplasma
Streptococcus cremoris (many cheeses)Thermothrix (S)
Strep. diacetilactis (sour cream,Thiobacillus (S)
butter products)Vibrio anguillarum
Strep. duransVib. fischeri
...Xanthomonas campestris
Strep. faecalisZymomonas
Strep. faecium9
Strep. lactis (many cheeses sour milk)9
Strep. mutans 9
Strep. salivarius9
Strep. sanguis9
Strep. stereothermophilus9
Strep. thermophilus (yogurt and9
many cheeses)9

Achlya Phycomyces blakesleeanus
Alloyces Pilobolus crystallinus
Antracobia Rhodotorula rubrum
Armillariella mellea(Prisoner-of-War bread [WW2]
Arthrobotrys conoides(degrades cellulose))
Arth. oligosporaRhyzopus (Indonesian soy tempeh)
AspergillusSaccharomyces cerevisiae
Basidiomycetes(baking, EtOH ferm, kifir)
Clavicorona pyxidataSac. uvarum
Corprinus lagopusSaccharomycoides ludwigii
Dactylaris (snares nematodes)Saprolegnia
DeuteromycetesSchizophyllum commune
Mucor heimalisSchizosaccharomyces octosporus
Mucor rouxiiSclerotium rolfsii
Neurospora crassaSordaria fimicola
PenicillumTaxomyces andreanae (taxol producer)
Pen. camemberti (cheese)Thermomyces lanuginosus
Pen. roqueforti (cheese)Trichoderma viride
PhlyctochytriumZygomycetes (see Mucor)

GREEN ALGAE: In essence all photosynthetic forms are safe EXCEPT Prototheca and Pfiesteria [cause skin ulcers]). Safe types include:
CladophoraIridea Spirogyra
CorallinaMesotaenium Synura
Dictyota NetriumVolvox


LICHENS: All forms and their constituent fungi and photosynthetic symbionts are safe. blank

Amoeba proteusEuglenaSpirostomum
Am. chaos (Pelemyxa)EuplotesStentor
ArcellaHerpetomonas muscarumTetrahymena
AstasiaLeishmania tarentalaeThalassiosira
BlepharismaLeptomonas pessoaiTrachelomonas
Bursaria truncatellaMonasTritrichomonas augusta
ChilomonasNaviculaTrypanosoma lewisi
ColpidiumParameciumTryp. ranarum
Crithidia fasciulataPeranemaTrichonympha
Cyclotella PeridiniumVorticella


All types, including Dictyostelium and Physarum, are safe.